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Genomes Technologies LLC’s scientists have made breakthrough discoveries in genome biology.

Origin of split-gene structure

The key questions of why the typical eukaryotic gene is split into many short coding exons and long intervening non-coding introns, and why only 5% of the human gene sequences code for proteins and the remaining 95% constitute non-coding DNA (“junk DNA”), constitute a major unsolved problem in biology that has persisted for over 25 years. The Chief Scientific Officer at Genomes Technologies LLC, Dr. Senapathy, introduced a novel model, the Random Sequence Origin of Split-genes (ROSG) model, which can explain the origin of introns and the split-structure of eukaryotic genes. The ROSG model has been corroborated by overwhelming evidence from studies of many complete genomic sequences and further gene data continue to provide additional support for the model. This model may pave the way for solving several key genomic and proteomic problems currently being researched.

Origin of splicing signals in split-genes

Splice signal sequences are conserved at the junctions of exons and introns in the genomes of eukaryotic organisms. However, their structure and origin have been an enigma since their discovery. Dr. Senapathy has provided the only explanation for the origin of the splice signal sequences that is consistent with all of the available genomic data. Based on the ROSG model, he has shown for the first time that exons are bordered by stop codons akin to the manner in which open reading frames (ORFs) are bordered by stop codons in random DNA. Senapathy’s recent findings corroborate his theory that split-genes must have indigenously occurred in random primordial DNA and that this indigenous occurrence must be the primary reason for all the observed structural features of split-genes.

Origin and diversity of complex organisms

Dr. Senapathy has also developed a novel theory of the origin of eukaryotic genomes. This Parallel Genome Origins (PGO) model postulates that multiple complex genomes could have originated from a common pool of split-genes that indigenously occurred in random primordial DNA. For the first time, this innovative approach has shown a new way of looking at the origin of eukaryotic genomes from the perspective of nascent split-genes. This theory is fully corroborated by the genome data of many phyletically disparate organisms whose complete genome data have become available recently. The PGO model has the ability to resolve major problems that have plagued the model of the linear branching evolution.

Discovering disease-causing genes using knowledge built on basic discoveries

These extensive research efforts have led to a deep understanding of genome biology and the need for a fundamentally different approach to discovering disease-causing genes in major illnesses. This knowledge coupled with computational genomics enabled the development of the breakthrough FGF technology.

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